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Testing Tuesday: VFR on Top Clearance

Today's Testing Tuesday will be beneficial to both primary students and instrument students, as it discusses that strangest of clearances: VFR on Top.

What is the required flight visibility and distance from clouds if you are operating in in Class E airspace at 9,500 feet MSL with a VFR-On-Top clearance during daylight hours?

  1. 3 SM, 1,000 feet above, 500 feet below, and 2,000 feet horizontal
  2. 5 SM, 500 feet above, 1,000 feet below, and 2,000 feet horizontal
  3. 3 SM, 500 feet above, 1,000 feet below, and 2,000 feet horizontal

Click here to display the answer...


Andrew Hartley is a certificated flight instructor and commercial pilot in Columbus, Ohio.

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Testing Tuesday: Class C Airspace Requirements

FAA Airspace

It's Tuesday again, and that means another installment of Testing Tuesday at Smart Flight Training!

I hope these question and answer sessions are helpful for you, but I'll be honest: I'm doing these for myself, too. I needed to continue to work on my CFII (Certificated Flight Instructor - Instrument) knowledge, and this seems as good a place as any to make sure my knowledge is strong as I move closer to that goal that, I'll admit, I've already missed the deadline I set for myself.

With that said, let's get on to today's question:

What minimum aircraft equipment is required for operation within class C airspace?

  1. Two way communications and Mode C transponder
  2. Two way communications
  3. Transponder and DME




Click here to display the answer...

Well, hopefully this Testing Tuesday post was helpful. This was a question I myself missed when I was originally studying for my Instrument Rating knowledge test, so it was good to review this and make sure I don't miss it again and can teach it to my future instrument students accurately and well.

Please let us know what you think about our Testing Tuesdays, and let us know if you have a question you would like answered - maybe something you missed on your own knowledge tests along the way, or something you were asked during the oral portion of a checkride. Let's make this more social, more interactive, more interesting! Try to stump me, try to stump the rest of my readers! You shouldn't have much trouble stumping me, but my readers are smart, so that will not be an easy task!


Andrew Hartley is a certificated flight instructor and commercial pilot in Columbus, OH.

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Testing Tuesday – Class D Airspace

Each Tuesday, Smart Flight Training will post a sample question that a pilot could expect to see on an FAA Knowledge Test or hear during the oral portion of a checkride. A little known secret to saving money and time during your flight training is PREPARATION! Hopefully Testing Tuesday post will be one small step in helping you live up to your side of learning to fly by being prepared when you meet with your flight instructor, saving you money and time! Good luck on the below question – click the link at the bottom to see the answer and explanation!

(Refer to Figure 93.) What are the normal lateral limits for Class D airspace?

  1. 3 miles.
  2. 4 miles.
  3. 5 miles.

Figure 93




Click here to display the answer...


Andrew Hartley is a certificated flight instructor and commercial pilot in Columbus, Ohio. His short term memory is terrible. And so is his short term memory.

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Testing Tuesday: Special Use Airspace – MOAs

Each Tuesday, Smart Flight Training will post a sample question that a pilot could expect to see on an FAA Knowledge Test or hear during the oral portion of a checkride. A little known secret to saving money and time during your flight training is PREPARATION! Hopefully Testing Tuesday post will be one small step in helping you live up to your side of learning to fly by being prepared when you meet with your flight instructor, saving you money and time! Good luck on the below question - click the link at the bottom to see the answer and explanation!

What action should a pilot take when operating under VFR in a Military Operations Area (MOA)?

  1. Obtain a clearance from the controlling agency prior to entering the MOA.
  2. Operate only on the airways that transverse the MOA.
  3. Exercise extreme caution when military activity is being conducted.




Click here to display the answer...

Andrew Hartley is a certificated flight instructor and commercial pilot in Columbus, Ohio. He scoffs at gravity.

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Airspace: Aircraft Speed Limits

Sky SignOne of the benefits (and excitements) of learning to fly is that you have the ability to GO REALLY FAST.  "There are no speed limit signs in the sky," you might say.

You're absolutely right that there are no speed limit signs in the sky.  But that doesn't mean that there are no aircraft speed limits.  Because, in fact, there are.

The main thing to remember is that, in general, "if you go high, you can fly!" - Above 10,000 feet MSL (mean sea level - this means "above sea level") there are no aircraft speed limits.  You can fly as fast as your little heart (and the planes little - or not so little - motor) desires.

But below 10,000' MSL, you have to maintain an indicated airspeed at or below 250 knots (KIAS).  And that's not all.

If an airplane is within class B airspace, regardless of altitude, it is limited to 250 knots indicated airspeed. If it is flying "under the shelf" of class B airspace, it is limited to 200 knots indicated airspeed.  There are also areas called "class B corridors" where aircraft can fly without clearance into class B airspace, and in these corridors, they are limited to 200 knots indicated airspeed as well.

Regulations also state that at or below 2500 AGL (above ground level - over the ground), when within 4 nautical miles from a class C or class D airport, you cannot fly any faster than 200 knots indicated airspeed. Air Traffic Control (ATC) may ask an aircraft to deviate from the 200 KIAS limit, but cannot ask an aircraft to go faster than the 250 KIAS limit (though they can always ask you to go slower).

Generally, these rules are in place so that aircraft with wildly different performance aren't flying at all different speeds when they are likely to be near one another.  Additionally, the lower you go, the more likely you are to be flying with birds, and if you are flying more slowly, if you happen to hit a bird (known as a bird strike), you are less likely to do significant damage to your airplane, such that you would not be able to control and land it.

For those of you who want to see the actual regulation, see 14 CFR 91.117. The above information applies to aircraft speed limits in the United States, under Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations. Other countries may have different rules.


Have any more questions or comments about aircraft speed limits? Hurry up and tell us below!

Andrew Hartley is a Certificated Flight Instructor in Columbus, Ohio.

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